Bariatric surgery for obesity & metabolic disorders
What is obesity?
Obesity is defined as having a Body Mass Index (BM) of 30 or higher. BMI is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms with square of height in meters.
What health conditions does morbid obesity contribute to?
Morbid obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, sleep apnea, respiratory insufficiency, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, asthma and bronchitis, degenerative disease of the lumbo-sacral spine, degenerative arthritis of weight-bearing joints, heartburn or reflux disease, gallbladder disease, stress urinary incontinence, venous stasis disease, depression and some cancers.
What is bariatric surgery or metabolic surgery?
This pertains to a group of surgeries that are performed on stomach and small intestine to induce long term weight loss along with treating health problems like diabetes, blood pressure, arthritis etc.
How is the bariatric/metabolic surgery done?
Bariatric surgery is done by key hole (laparoscopic) approach. Laparoscopic procedures are done through small incisions and therefore have the advantage of being associated with less pain, faster recovery and fewer wound complications.
How does bariatric surgery help to reduce weight and control metabolic problems?
The surgery helps by:
- Restricting the amount of food that one can eat
- Restricting the absorption of food that one eats
- Improving insulin secretion and decreasing insulin resistance
- Hormonal manipulation where in appetite stimulating hormones are suppressed
Who would benefit from surgery?
People whose BMI exceeds 35 or whose BMI is 32 having co-morbid conditions of obesity such as cardiopulmonary problems, diabetes or sleep apnea, may be considered for surgery if they have failed medical therapy.
What are types of bariatric/metabolic surgeries performed?
- Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
- Laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy
- Laparoscopic mini gastric bypass
What are the health benefits of weight loss surgery?
- Average 60-70% of excess body weight loss one year after surgery.
- Patients maintain 60% of the excess body weight loss after 10-14 years of undergoing the bariatric surgery.
- 80-90% cure or improvement of associated health conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea, hyperlipidemia, polycystic ovaries, joint pains & fatty liver.
- Patients report an improved quality of life and increased activity after weight loss surgery.
- Improved fertility.
Dr. K S Lakshmi
Senior Consultant - Laparoscopic & Bariatric Surgery
Gleneagles Global Hospital Lakdikapul